Eleocharis montana

(Kunth) Roemer & Schultes in J. J. Roemer et al.

in J. J. Roemer et al., Syst. Veg. 2: 153. 1817.

Illustrated
Basionyms: Scirpus montanus Kunth in A. von Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 226. 1816
Synonyms: Eleocharis montana var. nodulosa Svenson Eleocharis nodulosa
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 79. Mentioned on page 64, 77, 80.

Plants perennial, densely tufted or mat-forming; rhizomes mostly hidden by culms and roots, fairly long, 3 mm thick, hard, cortex persistent, longer internodes to 3 mm, scales persistent, ca. 8 mm, membranous, slightly fibrous. Culms terete, when dry with few-to-many blunt ridges, 10–70 cm × 0.5–2 mm, soft to firm, internally hollow with complete transverse septa 2–5 mm apart, usually evident externally except in narrowest culms. Leaves: distal leaf-sheaths persistent, not splitting, proximally dark red, distally green or brown, slightly callose, papery, apex obtuse, tooth present, 0.3–1 mm. Spikelets ovoid, 6–21 × 3–4 mm, apex acute to obtuse; proximal scale amplexicaulous, entire; subproximal scale empty or with flower; floral scales appressed in fruit, 100–500+, (15–) 30–40 per mm of rachilla, medium brown to colorless, midrib regions greenish to colorless, ovate, 1.5–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, entire, apex rounded to subacute, carinate in distal part of spikelet. Flowers: perianth bristles 6–8, pale-brown, medium stout, from less than 1/2 achene length to sometimes slightly exceeding tubercle, retrorsely spinulose; stamens 1; anthers dark yellow to brown, 0.6–1 mm; styles 3-fid or some 2-fid. Achenes falling with scales, dark green or medium brown, obovoid to obpyriform, biconvex or sometimes some compressedtrigonous in same spikelet, lateral angles prominent, abaxial angle absent or evident, not prominent, 0.8–1.1 × 0.7–0.8 mm, neck short or absent, finely cancellate at 10–20X, sometimes finely rugulose, with 15 horizontal ridges in vertical series. Tubercles brown, pyramidal, mostly depressed, 0.2–0.35 × 0.2–0.4 mm.


Phenology: Fruiting winter–fall.
Habitat: Fresh temporary or artificial ponds, ditches, burned savannas, swamp margins
Elevation: 20–90[–2800] m

Distribution

V23 105-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ariz., Fla., Ga., La., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America

Discussion

The taxonomy of the septate-culmed species here treated as Eleocharis montana and E. ravenelii should be evaluated. According to H. K. Svenson (1957), the type of E. montana from near Bogotá, Colombia, is the mountain extreme of the species; it has swollen culms with no visible septation.

Specimens from Acadia and St. Landry parishes, Louisiana, are intermediate between Eleocharis montana and E. montevidensis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Eleocharis montana"
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
not prominent +  and evident +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
brown +, medium +  and dark green +
cancellate or reticulate +  and rugulose +
sometimes;biconvex;obovoid;obpyriform +
color +  and texture +
dark yellow;brown +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
S. Galen Smith* +, Jeremy J. Bruhl* +, M. Socorro González-Elizondo* +  and Francis J. Menapace* +
(Kunth) Roemer & Schultes in J. J. Roemer et al. +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
shortened +
persistent +
enlarged +
Scirpus montanus +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
persistent +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
soft;firm +
0.5mm;2mm +
brown +, green +  and dark red +
Ala. +, Ariz. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +  and South America +
20–90[–2800] m +
brown +  and colorless +
membranous +  and thinly papery +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Fresh temporary or artificial ponds, ditches, burned savannas, swamp margins +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
rugulose +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting winter–fall. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
stramineous;medium brown or red brown or blackish brown +
in J. J. Roemer et al., Syst. Veg. +
ascending +  and horizontal +
caudex-like +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (?) +
adventitious +
persistent +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (?) +
fibrous +  and membranous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
2-fid +, some +  and 3-fid +
with flower +  and empty +
Eleocharis montana var. nodulosa +  and Eleocharis nodulosa +
Eleocharis montana +
Eleocharis (sect. Eleocharis) ser. Eleocharis +
species +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.2mm;0.35mm +
depressed +  and pyramidal +
0.2mm +  and 0.4mm +
plant +  and mat-forming +