Sp. Musc. Frond., 60. 1801 ,.

Etymology: Greek en, in, and kalyptos, cover or veil or lid, alluding to the calyptra
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 27. Treatment on page 172. Mentioned on page 10, 171, 173, 265.

Plants small to medium-sized, frequently gregarious. Stems irregularly branched, occasionally tomentose; central strand absent or weakly differentiated. Leaves oblong, elliptic, narrowly spathulate or occasionally lanceolate; apex broadly acute to rounded, mucronate to hair-pointed, occasionally cucullate; margins plane to weakly recurved on one or both sides, entire; costa single, subpercurrent to long-excurrent, awn smooth, hyaline; distal laminal cells more or less quadrate, papillose on one or both exposed surfaces with several large, branching or C-shaped papillae; marginal cells sometimes longer proximally, forming a very weak border; basal-cells long-rectangular, thin-walled, generally smooth, cross-walls frequently distinctly colored. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta elongate, smooth, brown to red or dark red. Capsule generally long-exserted or just emergent, erect to inclined, cylindric, smooth or distinctly furrowed; gymnostomous or peristomate, stomata few; peristome single, double or absent, exostome frequently reduced to small, irregular projections or teeth long, narrow, papillose; operculum usually conic-rostrate. Calyptra smooth or papillose distally or frequently only on rostrum, entire, fringed or lacerate below, fringe small or well developed. Spores generally large, ornamentation papillose to warty, or ridged.


North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia


Species 34 (14 in the flora).

The large, straw-colored calyptrae of Encalypta are generally present in mature colonies, growing on shallow soil over rock in exposed or moderately sheltered recesses. Encalypta can be separated from the only other genus in the family, Bryobrittonia, by papillose distal leaf cells and more or less entire leaf margins.

Excluded Species:

Encalypta microstoma Balsamo & De Notaris

No specimens were seen; see D. G. Horton (1983).

Selected References



1 Vegetative leaves without long awn; apex muticous, mucronate, or apiculate > 2
1 Some or all vegetative leaves with distinct awns; apex broad to obtuse or acute > 8
2 Stems covered with dense mass of rhizoidal gemmae. Encalypta procera
2 Stems without rhizoidal gemmae > 3
3 Costa short-excurrent or percurrent; peristome present > 4
3 Costa ending before apex on most leaves; peristome absent > 5
4 Leaves oblong to elliptical, 4-6 mm; regularly apiculate; peristome single. Encalypta ciliata
4 Leaves ligulate to lingulate or narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 mm; costa ending before apex or short-excurrent; peristome double. Encalypta affinis
5 Leaves broadly oblong to elliptical, 3-4 mm; calyptra fringed or not > 6
5 Leaves elliptical to ligulate or lingulate, 1-3 mm; calyptra lacerate > 7
6 Calyptra base not fringed; costa generally smooth distally adaxially; capsule weakly striate; spores warty, 22-35 µm. Encalypta vulgaris
6 Calyptra irregularly fringed at base; costa papillose distally adaxially; capsule smooth to slightly wrinkled; spores finely pitted, 30-35 µm. Encalypta texana
7 Leaves broadly elliptical to ligulate, 1-2 mm; margins plane to weakly recurved along one margin; spores papillose, 25-28 µm. Encalypta mutica
7 Leaves broadly oblong to lingulate, 2-3 mm; margins plane; spores ridged, 35-40 µm Encalypta flowersiana
8 Leaves apiculate to short-awned > 9
8 Leaves short- to long-awned > 12
9 Peristome well developed; leaf apex broad to obtuse > 10
9 Peristome weak or absent; leaf apex acute > 11
10 Capsules distinctly ribbed; spores warty, 35-37 µm; leaves oblong to lingulate, 1.5-2.5 mm Encalypta vittiana
10 Capsules ± smooth, not ribbed; spores granulate, 60-80 µm; leaves narrowly spathulate to lingulate, 1.3-2.5 mm. Encalypta longicollis
11 Leaves lanceolate; peristome absent. Encalypta alpina
11 Leaves narrowly oblong; peristome present, weak. Encalypta rhaptocarpa
12 Peristome absent > 13
12 Peristome present > 14
13 Leaves oblong, 1.7-3 mm; seta elongate. Encalypta spathulata
13 Leaves broadly oblong to oval-spathulate, 2-4 mm; seta short. Encalypta brevipes
14 Capsules strongly ribbed > 15
14 Capsules not noticeably ribbed > 16
15 Calyptra base fringed; leaves lingulate, apiculate to very short-awned. Encalypta vittiana
15 Calyptra base erose; leaves oblong-lanceolate, generally with a distinct awn Encalypta rhaptocarpa
16 Leaves ligulate to narrowly spathulate, 1.5-3.5 mm; capsules short- cylindric; spores granulate. Encalypta longicollis
16 Leaves broad oblong to oblong spathulate, 2-6 mm; capsules cylindric; spores warty or ridged. Encalypta brevicollis
... more about "Encalypta"
Robert E. Magill +
Hedwig +
long-rectangular +
fringed +  and lacerate +
thin-walled +
small +
papillose +  and smooth +
lacerate +, fringed +  and entire +
furrowed +  and smooth +
erect +  and inclined +
long-exserted +
cylindric +
long-excurrent +
subpercurrent +
autoicous +  and sexual +
North America +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +, South America +, Europe +, Asia +, Africa +, Indian Ocean Islands (Madagascar) +, Pacific Islands (New Zealand) +  and Australia +
Greek en, in, and kalyptos, cover or veil or lid, alluding to the calyptra +
long-rectangular +
distinct +
rhombic;quadrate +
costate +  and twisted +
lanceolate +, spathulate +, elliptic +  and oblong +
conic-rostrate +
c--shaped +
reduced to small +  and papillose +
frequently reduced;small +
Sp. Musc. Frond., +
brown;red or dark red +
elongate +
rounded +
phaneroporous +
Encalypta +
Encalyptaceae +
papillose +
incrassate +
plant +  and gregarious +
small +  and medium-sized +