Fallopia japonica var. japonica

WeedyIntroducedIllustrated
Synonyms: Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zuccarini
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Treatment on page 543.

Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous, 1.5–2 (–3) m. Stems usually clustered, erect, profusely branched, herbaceous, stiff, glabrous, glaucous. Leaves: ocrea usually deciduous, brownish, cylindric, 4–6 (–10) mm, margins oblique, face not fringed with reflexed hairs and slender bristles at base, otherwise glabrous or puberulent; petiole 1–3 cm, glabrous; blade ovate, 5–15 × 2–10 cm, base truncate to attenuate, margins entire, glabrous or scabrous to ciliate, apex abruptly cuspidate, abaxial face minutely dotted, glaucous, with hairs along veins unicellular, shorter than 0.1 mm, tips blunt, veins obscurely scabrous, adaxial face glabrous. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, erect or spreading, paniclelike or, sometimes, racemelike, 4–12 cm, axes puberulent; peduncle 0.1–2.5 cm or absent, puberulent. Pedicels ascending or spreading, articulated proximal to middle, 3–5 mm, glabrous. Flowers bisexual or pistillate, 3–8 (–15) per ocreate fascicle; perianth accrescent in fruit, white or greenish white to pink, 4–6 mm including stipelike base, glabrous; tepals obovate to elliptic, apex obtuse to acute, outer 3 winged; stamens 8; filaments flattened proximally, glabrous; styles connate basally; stigmas fimbriate. Achenes included, dark-brown, 2.3–3.6 × 1.4–1.9 mm, shiny, smooth; fruiting perianth glabrous, wings flat to undulate, 1.4–2 mm wide at maturity, decurrent on stipelike base nearly to articulation, margins entire. 2n = 44, 66, 88 (Korea).


Phenology: Flowering Aug–Sep.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, waste places
Elevation: 0-1800 m

Distribution

V5 1111-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon, B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., e Asia (China), e Asia (Japan), e Asia (Korea), e Asia (Taiwan), in Europe

Discussion

Variety hachidyoensis (Makino) Yonekura & H. Ohashi and var. uzenensis (Honda) Yonekura & H. Ohashi are endemic to Japan and are distinguished by differences in leaf size and pubescence. A dwarf alpine form of Fallopia japonica found in Korea also is sometimes recognized as var. compacta (Houttuyn) J. P. Bailey. It is shorter (to 8 dm), has reddish perianths, and often is planted as a ground cover.

Fallopia ×bohemica is a naturally occurring hybrid between var. japonica and F. sachalinensis. Fallopia japonica also hybridizes with F. baldschuanica.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/2" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

88 +, 66 +  and 44 +
0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
3-gonous +
1.4mm;1.9mm +
yellow +  and pink or red +
ovate +  and elliptic +
Craig C. Freeman +  and Harold R. Hinds† +
(Houttuyn) Ronse Decraene +
puberulent +
stipelike +, decurrent +, truncate +  and attenuate +
Reynoutria japonica +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
2cm;10cm +
foliaceous +  and perfoliate +
scale-like +
just below the soil surface or and above the soil surface +  and spreading +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Alaska +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, e Asia (China) +, e Asia (Japan) +, e Asia (Korea) +, e Asia (Taiwan) +  and in Europe +
0-1800 m +
puberulent +  and glabrous +
not fringed +
free +  and distinct +
flattened +
disarticulating +  and solid +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
unwinged +  and winged +
black +, red +, brown +  and yellowish +
exserted +  and included +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
spheroidal +, 4-gonous +, lenticular +, biconvex +, discoid +, 3-gonous +  and 2-gonous +
Disturbed sites, waste places +
not +  and pedunculate +
spreading +  and erect +
racemelike +, , +  and paniclelike +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
nonmembranous +
deciduous +
cauline +  and basal +
scabrous +  and glabrous +
wavy +  and entire +
swollen +
partly +  and foliaceous +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
cylindric +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
anatropous +, , +  and orthotropous +
spreading;ascending +
proximal +  and middle +
accrescent +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
campanulate +
accrescent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
fleshy +, indurate +  and membranous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Flowering Aug–Sep. +
(2-)3(-4)-carpellate +
Bot. J. Linn. Soc. +
rhizomatous +
slender;stout +
woody +  and fibrous +
Weedy +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
procumbent +  and scandent +
fimbriate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
2-lobed +  and cylindric +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
Polygonum cuspidatum +
Fallopia japonica var. japonica +
Fallopia japonica +
variety +
obovate +  and elliptic +
coriaceous +
persistent +
membranous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
unicellular +
flat;undulate +
1.4mm;2mm +