Schoenoplectus erectus subsp. raynalii

(Schuyler) Lye

Nordic J. Bot. 3: 243. 1983.

Illustrated
Basionym: Scirpus raynalii Schuyler Notul. Nat. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 438: 1, figs. 1, 3, 6. 1971
Synonyms: Scirpus erismanae Schuyler Scirpus wilkensii Schuyler
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23.

Plants annual; rhizomes 1 mm diam. Culms cylindric, ridged when dry, 0.05–0.5 m × 0.5–1 mm. Leaves 3–4, 1 cauline, nearly equaling culm; sheaths disintegrating to fibers; blades 1–2, thickly C-shaped in cross-section, distally flat, from much shorter to ca. 1/2 as long as sheath, 0–200 × 0.2–1 mm, smooth or margins distally spinulose. Inflorescences capitate or of 1 spikelet or rarely with 1 or 2 branches to 3 cm; proximal bract erect, resembling leaf-blades, 5–200 mm. Spikelets 1–10, 5–13 × 2–3 mm; scales straw-colored or often flanks distally bright orangebrown, central region often greenish, ovate, 2.5–3.4 (–5) × 1.5 mm, smooth or awn sparsely spinulose, margins ciliolate, midrib keeled distally, apex acute, awn 0.2–0.3 mm or to 2 mm on proximal scale. Flowers: perianth absent; anthers 0.5 mm; styles 2-fid or rarely few 3-fid. Spikelet achenes blackish brown when ripe, unequally biconvex to obscurely trigonous, adaxial surface longitudinally convex and horizontally concave with a convex center, ovoid to obovoid, 1–1.6 × 1–1.5 mm, with 12–15 sharp to blunt ridges; beak 0.1 mm. Amphicarpic achenes thickly trigonous with rounded abaxial faces, ellipsoid, prominently beaked, 2.2–3.2 mm, rugose. 2n = 10.


Phenology: Fruiting summer–fall, spring (Texas).
Habitat: Wet soils or emergent, freshwater shores, temporary ponds, ditches, usually sandy and often drying areas
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V23 91-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Fla., Ga., S.C., Tex., Mexico (Quintana Roo), Mexico (Tamaulipas), South America (Argentina), South America (Paraguay), Asia (Vietnam), Africa, Australia

Discussion

Many specimens of Schoenoplectus erectus subsp. raynalii are misidentified as Schoenoplectus hallii or S. saximontanus. North American Scirpus erismanae and S. wilkensii (A. E. Schuyler 1969) were placed in synonymy under Schoenoplectus erectus (J. Raynal 1976). North American plants are indistinguishable from eastern and southern African plants. Schoenoplectus erectus subsp. erectus differs in its “wrinkled” achenes with faint ridges and is reported only from Mauritius (the type locality), Madagascar, and associated islands. The name Scirpus erectus has long been misapplied in the Old World to Scirpus juncoides Roxburgh in the broad sense, which is related to S. purshianus and S. smithii in 7c. Schoenoplectus sect. Actaeogeton.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

No values specified."prolonged" is not a number.

ellipsoid;trigonous +
ovoid +  and obovoid +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
S. Galen Smith +
(Schuyler) Lye +
shortened +
deciduous +
enlarged +
Scirpus raynalii +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (?) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
0 (?) +  and 1/2 (?) +
c--shaped +
0.2mm;1mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br />) +
dorsiventrally flat +  and c-shaped or laterally compressed +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
ridged +  and cylindric +
0.5mm;1mm +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Mexico (Quintana Roo) +, Mexico (Tamaulipas) +, South America (Argentina) +, South America (Paraguay) +, Asia (Vietnam) +, Africa +  and Australia +
0–100 m +
bright orangebrown +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Wet soils or emergent, freshwater shores, temporary ponds, ditches, usually sandy and often drying areas +
of 1 spikelet +  and capitate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
membranous +
curved +  and straight +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer–fall, spring (Texas). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
Nordic J. Bot. +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
inconspicuous +
sharp +  and blunt +
adventitious +
straw-colored +
deciduous +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
disintegrating +
Illustrated +
unequally biconvex +  and obscurely trigonous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
1 +  and 10 +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
3-fid +, few +  and 2-fid +
Scirpus erismanae +  and Scirpus wilkensii +
Schoenoplectus erectus subsp. raynalii +
Schoenoplectus erectus +
subspecies +
not +  and rhizomatous +