Duchesnea

Smith

Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 372. 1811.

Common names: Mock- or Indian-strawberry
Introduced
Etymology: For Antoine Nicolas Duchesne, 1747–1827 French botanist and monographer of Fragaria
Synonyms: Potentilla sect. Duchesnea (Smith) Dikshit & Panigrahi Potentilla subg. Duchesnea (Smith) M. Shah & Wilcock
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 272. Mentioned on page 120, 122, 124, 133, 219.

Herbs, perennial, ± matted, 0.5–3 dm, sparsely hairy; stoloniferous. Stems: number not recorded, prostrate or spreading to weakly erect, stolon nodes bearing single leaves or condensed shoots, consisting of paired (1–) 3-lobed green bractlets and 1+ leaves, developing into new plantlets, adventitious-roots, and peduncles. Leaves often winter-persistent, basal or cauline, alternate, ternate; stipules persistent, proximally adnate to base of petiole, sheathing, broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, margins entire; petiole present; blade ± cordate in outline, (1–) 2–7 cm, foliaceous, leaflets 3, elliptic to obovate, margins flat, ± doubly serrate or crenate, venation pinnate, surfaces sparsely pilose or strigose (at least abaxially). Inflorescences axillary at stolon nodes, flowers solitary; bracts absent; bracteoles absent. Pedicels present, straight. Flowers [5–] 15–20 mm diam.; epicalyx bractlets 5; hypanthium cupulate, 1–3 × 2.5–5 mm; sepals 5, spreading to erect, broadly lanceolate to ovate; petals 5, yellow, narrowly obcordate to obovate, ± equal to or shorter than sepals; stamens 20, 25, or 30, shorter than petals, filaments filiform, glabrous, thecae paired on sides of narrow connective, dehiscing by broad lateral slits; torus turbinate to hemispheric; carpels 50–100, glabrous, styles subterminal, filiform; ovule 1. Fruits accessory; aggregated achenes, 50–100 or less, borne on enlarged torus, superficial on flesh, obliquely ovoid, [8–] 10–15 (–20) mm, glabrous; torus reddish, compressed ovoid, [0.8–] 1–1.5 cm, fleshy (not pulpy), apex rounded, glabrous; hypanthium persistent; sepals persistent, spreading; styles tardily deciduous, jointed. x = 7.

Distribution

Introduced; Asia, also in South America, Europe, Africa

Discussion

Species 2 (1 in the flora).

Duchesnea is superficially similar to Fragaria in its fleshy red fruit and ternate leaves but differs in having yellow petals, doubly toothed leaflets, and protruding achenes, among other characteristics. The similarities result from convergence; phylogenetically, Duchesnea nests within Potentilla near sect. Potentilla. It is retained here as a distinct genus because of characteristics that would be anomalous in Potentilla, that is, condensed shoot structure at stolon nodes, enlarged 3-lobed epicalyx bractlets, and accessory fruit structure.

Our infrageneric taxonomy follows Li C. L. et al. (2003b), in which the stable diploid (2n = 14) Duchesnea chrysantha (Zollinger & Moritzi) Miquel is recognized as a distinct species in eastern Asia. In contrast, the most common phase of D. indica, which is the one naturalized in North America, appears to be a dodecaploid (2n = 84), although various other numbers have been reported (2n = 14, 21, 28, 49, 56), mainly from Europe. Morphological differences include achenes tuberculate in D. chrysantha versus smooth in D. indica.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

... more about "Duchesnea"
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
superficial +
10mm +  and 15mm +
Barbara Ertter +  and James L. Reveal +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
cordate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
(1-)3-lobed +
free +  and distinct +
Mock- or Indian-strawberry +
Asia +, also in South America +, Europe +  and Africa +
not +  and aggregated +
For Antoine Nicolas Duchesne, 1747–1827 French botanist and monographer of Fragaria +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
winter-persistent +
cauline +  and basal +
elliptic +  and obovate +
pinnate +  and entire +
crenate +, serrate +  and flat +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
more or less equal to or shorter +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Trans. Linn. Soc. London +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +  and erect +
broadly lanceolate +  and ovate +
Introduced +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
spreading +  and weakly erect +
palmate +  and pinnate +
deciduous +
distinct +
subterminal +
filiform +
strigose +  and pilose +
Potentilla sect. Duchesnea +  and Potentilla subg. Duchesnea +
Duchesnea +
Rosaceae tribe Potentilleae +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
ovoid +, compressed +, turbinate +  and hemispheric +
enlarged +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
herb +  and matted +