Monotropa

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 387. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 183. 1754 ,.

Etymology: Greek monos, one, and tropos, turn or direction, alluding to flowers all turned in one direction on inflorescence axis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 392. Mentioned on page 371, 373.

Herbs, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic. Stems absent. Leaves absent. Inflorescences racemes or solitary flowers, nodding at emergence from soil, becoming erect in fruit, axis fleshy and fibrous, persistent after seed dispersal, white or yellowish to orange or reddish, 0.1–1 cm diam. proximal to proximalmost flower. Pedicels nodding at anthesis, somewhat longer in fruit; bracteoles sometimes present. Flowers radially symmetric, nodding; sepals absent or (3–) 4–5 (–6), distinct, lanceolate, oblong, spatulate, or elliptic; petals (3–) 4–5 (–6), distinct, white to pinkish, reddish, yellowish, or orange, without basal tubercles, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial surface with scattered hairs or hairy, corolla tubular-campanulate; intrastaminal nectary disc present; stamens 8–10 (–14), included; filaments ± uniformly slender or slightly broader proximally than distally, glabrous or sparsely hairy; anthers transversely ellipsoid to depressed-ovoid or horseshoe-shaped, without awns, without tubules, dehiscent by 1 slit; pistil (4–) 5 (–6) -carpellate; ovary (4–) 5 (–6) -locular; placentation axile; style straight, stout or slender; stigma umbilicate to funnelform, with or without subtending ring of hairs. Fruits capsular, erect, dehiscent basipetally loculicidal, no cobwebby tissue exposed by splitting valves at dehiscence. Seeds 100+, oblong-fusiform, mostly membranously winged. x = 8.

Distribution

North America, Mexico, Central America, n South America, Europe, Asia

Discussion

Hypopitys Hill

Species 2 (2 in the flora).

Molecular studies have demonstrated the paraphyletic nature of Monotropa and clarified relationships among some of the allied monotypic genera. A treatment realigning several genera of the achlorophyllous heterotrophs is not yet completed. Therefore, Monotropa here includes M. hypopitys and M. uniflora.

Studies by K. W. Cullings (2000) and M. I. Bidartondo and T. D. Bruns (2001, 2002) suggest recognition of potential infraspecific taxa in Monotropa uniflora and M. hypopitys as well as the presence of cryptic species within M. hypopitys.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Inflorescences solitary flowers; sepals similar to bracts; nectary lobes elongate, curved about filament bases; stigmas broadly funnelform, without subtending ring of hairs; capsule segments stout, persistent after seed dispersal. Monotropa uniflora
1 Inflorescences racemes, rarely solitary flowers; sepals not similar to bracts; nectary lobes not elongate or curved about filament bases; stigmas umbilicate, often with subtending ring of hairs; capsule segments thin, often some fall away after seed dispersal. Monotropa hypopitys

"broader" is not a number.

... more about "Monotropa"
transversely ellipsoid +  and depressed-ovoid or horseshoe-shaped +
Gary D. Wallace +
Linnaeus +
yellowish;orange or reddish +
persistent +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
fibrous +  and fleshy +
acicular;plane +
coriaceous +
pseudoverticillate +, in basal rosettes +  and alternate +
persistent +  and deciduous +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
North America +, Mexico +, Central America +, n South America +, Europe +  and Asia +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
Greek monos, one, and tropos, turn or direction, alluding to flowers all turned in one direction on inflorescence axis +
hairy +  and glabrous +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
loculicidal +  and dehiscent +
multicellular +
whorled +, , +, opposite +, pseudoverticillate +  and alternate +
persistent +
scale-like +
reduced +
revolute;plane;toothed;entire;revolute;plane;toothed;entire +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
distinct +
4 +  and 5 +
reduced +
not sticky +
(4-)5(-6)-carpellate +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
distinct +
oblong-fusiform +
distinct +
4 +  and 5 +
elliptic +, spatulate +, oblong +  and lanceolate +
decumbent +  and erect +
peltate +  and capitate +
umbilicate +
straight +
slender +  and stout +
Undefined subfam. Pyroloideae +, Undefined tribe Monotropaceae +  and Undefined tribe Pyrolaceae +
Monotropa +
Ericaceae subfam. Monotropoideae +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +